ARVs do not cure one from HIV/AIDS. The HIV virus once in the human body acts by destroying the immune system by mainly targeting the white blood cells. At the same time the virus uses the host white bloods cells to replicate and produce more viruses.
The high viral load causes even further destruction of the immune system .This eventually makes the host susceptible to various infections commonly known as opportunistic infections. These if not well managed can end up being life threatening. ARVs work by hindering the replication of the virus hence reducing the viral load. Subsequently the debilitating effects of the virus are reduced hence prolonging life.
ARVs have been considered for usage in post exposue prophylaxis (PEP) i.e as soon as one is exposed to HIV to try and reduce the chance of one becoming HIV positive.
These medications keep HIV from making copies of itself and spreading through your body.
There are two types of PEP:(1) occupational PEP (sometimes called "oPEP"), taken when someone working in a healthcare setting is potentially exposed to material infected with HIV, and (2) non-occupational PEP (sometimes called "nPEP"), taken when someone is potentially exposed to HIV outside the workplace (e.g. needle-sharing injection) PEP is not 100% effective; it does not guarantee that someone exposed to HIV will not become infected with HIV.
When a mosquito bites someone, it does not inject its own blood or the blood of an animal or person it has bitten into the next person it bites. The mosquito does inject saliva which acts as a lubricant so that it can feed more effectively. Yellow fever and malaria can be transmitted through the saliva but HIV does not reproduce in insects, so the virus doesn't survive in the mosquito long enough to be transmitted in the saliva.
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), mosquitoes do not inject blood when they bite. As a result, mosquitoes do not transmit the virus. What they do inject is an itch-inducing saliva that acts as a lubricant to aid blood extraction, but it does not carry the virus. Even if the mosquito you squashed had just bitten an HIV infected person, the virus would stay alive within the mosquito's body for a short time.
The fragility of HIV makes it impossible to be transmitted through inanimate objects, casual contact, or insects. Mosquito bites do not transmit the virus in the same way that needle pricks do. Syringes are dangerous because they allow virus-infected blood to survive in a shielded, airtight environment. Mosquitoes, on the other hand, carry only a tiny amount of residual blood on the outside of their mouths after a bite.
Failure to take ARV medications as prescribed can cause viral drug resistance resulting in treatment failure. The consequence of non-adherence is the emergence of viral drug resistance. As resistant strains replicate within a patient, ARVs will fail to suppress the virus.
There is then the potential of this strain being transmitted within the community and nation, starting an additional epidemic of resistant HIV with very little or no options for treatment. Patients should therefore adhere to their medication plans.